Most of the design suits and development environments have integrated PCBs trace resistance calculator which can estimate the resistance of the final copper trace on the board by providing the required and. Instead of using a homemade tool to work out the impedance of each trace in your PCB, Altium Designer incorporates PCB impedance calculations as part of your design rules. The MWI-2010 Microwave Impedance Calculator is a transmission line modeling tool for electronics engineers. "DEFINED IMPEDANCE pool" is a fast turnaround solution for boards on which a specific impedance for certain tracks is required. This calculator computes the inductance of a microstrip etched on a PCB, which according to the ARRL handbook is:. Wadell[1] is one of the most comprehensive sources of equations for evaluating these impedances. Several choices of common units are available. 5oz/ft*ft, 1oz/ft*ft, and 2oz/ft*ft. In the following sections, we will discuss the performance requirements such as signal integrity (SI), and related issues of controlled impedance (CI), power integrity (PI), and EMI/EMC. It defines range for most of the parameter we need to know for the wire size calculation. In the case of a microstrip, the impedance will depend on 4 parameters : H, Er, T, W For standard circuit boards, a PCB manufacturer is given a set of patterns - copper patterns, hole patterns, ink patterns, which are combined into a single circuit board with all the pattern sizes and positions within certain. Here is what I fed into to the calculator: Trace Thickness: 35 µm (Standard 1 oz copper thickness for FR4 PCB material) Substrate Height: 1. AN-672 AN 672: Transceiver Link Design Guidelines for High-Gbps Data Rate Transmission Altera Corporation Send Feedback. This tool calculates key parameters for most common microwave transmission lines, including microstrip, stripline, and coplanar-waveguide transmission lines. Using formulas to calculate strip/mictrostrip impedance's used to be good enough, but with modern PCB technology, this does NOT work well. h = Dielectric Thickness. > There are a lot of impedance calculators on the web but none seem to match each other. Chemical etching divides the copper into separate conducting lines called tracks or circuit traces, pads for connections, vias to pass connections between layers of copper, and features such as solid conductive areas for electromagnetic shielding or other purposes. The meter is reporting the (negligible) resistance of the PCB traces plus the 10 Ohm resistor. Trace width is one of the most influential elements affecting characteristic impedance and Figure 4 below demonstrates the relationship between characteristic impedance and trace width. Field solving design systems compute parameters for lossless or lossy line impedance, taking into account high-frequency dielectric loss and copper surface losses using Huray, Groisse or Hammerstad methodologies. To calculate impedance, you must know the value of all resistors and the impedance of all inductors and capacitors, which offer varying amounts of opposition to the current depending on how the current is changing in strength, speed, and direction. Go to the calculator section. A signal travels on a PCB transmission line at a slower speed, affected by the dielectric constant (Er) of the PCB material – the relations for calculating the signal speed on a PCB are given below:. This tool can handle board stack ups to 16 copper layers, metric or English dimensioning, multiple ground planes and differential impedance calculations. We use a product from Polar Instruments called 'Polar Instruments Si8000 Quick Solver'. 2012 Canadian Circuits hosted an open house after renovating the production facility with distinguished speakers, plant tours and prizes. You can get an instant pcb assembly quote by using our online price calculator to help you estimate the PCB assembly cost of your project. To determine the proper thickness the amount of current passing through the PCB is compared. Impedance in an electrical circuit is the complex ratio of the voltage to the current. There are four different types of impedance used in characterizing differential trace impedances. The demand for impedance calculators rises dramatically. (sma connector) the connector is has 50 ohm impedance. Several Web sites such as the examples listed below contain additional reference information. We use a product from Polar Instruments called ‘Polar Instruments Si8000 Quick Solver’. The impedance of the line is mainly depending on your PCB characteristics. Always consult us for feedback on your proposed stack-up and controlled Impedance trace width and space BEFORE layout. Simons, "Coplanar Waveguide Circuits, Components, and Systems", Wiley, 2001, pp. If we plug the impedance into Ohms law, we see. Please LIKE, Share, ReTweet. In the early 1990s, impedance control was limited to PCBs used in few specific market segments. But with great power comes great responsibility!. No registration needed, comprehensive options and specs available to quote instantly 508-808-9763. com's RLC Circuit Equivalent Resistance (Zeq) Calculator is an online electrical engineering tool to calculate resultant resistivity for resistor (R), inductor (L) & capacitor (C) connected in series or parallel. I would like to route them on internal layers (3 and 4). Purpose of use Homework. Thread starter Is there any acceptable formula/software for calculating the Impedance of copper trace on a PCB? Hero999. If a trace has been defined as an impedance control trace, it is not the trace size which is strictly defined, but rather the impedance. You can see here that an inch of an average PCB trace can have between 0. Impedance control is about accuracy. Every PCB Manufacturer has a different process and will modify trace widths to achieve desired impedances. It only takes seconds to determine the impact of layer count, parts count, PCB size, etc. 8 10 7 S/m Relative Permittivity of FR4 = 4. With PCB traces, as the antenna design is susceptible to the overall PCB design, it is difficult to perform tuning and achieve the desired performance. On a typical high speed multilayer board you may have something around 100um trace width and 100um dielectric thickness. My CAN Bus will be the standard ISO 11898. We use a standard FR-4 PCB with an estimated εr of two at 433MHz and a thickness of 1. We recommend the software from Polar Instruments if you want to get exact impedance calculation. 36 microstrip pcb transmission lines 12. Hem; Om Multi-Teknik; Teknik. The antenna is simply a PCB track (35micron x 2mm, 12mm diameter loop) with a short transmission line (track) to it. Chemical etching divides the copper into separate conducting lines called tracks or circuit traces, pads for connections, vias to pass connections between layers of copper, and features such as solid conductive areas for electromagnetic shielding or other purposes. The correction factor is the square root of (1 + Cd/Co*l) where Cd is the sum of the capacitive loads and l is the length of the trace (Figure 3a). The thinner the trace width, the more impedance is offered. You can see here that an inch of an average PCB trace can have between 0. Wadell, "Transmission Line Design Handbook" *Elliptic integrals are calculated using the approximation from Wolfgang Hilberg "From approximations to exact relations for characteristic impedances" and are. t = Trace Thickness. If it is off substantially, the PCB trace dimensions should be adjusted to provide a match. Bandwidth Calculator & Max PCB Trace Length Calculator Calculates the bandwidth of a digital signal and maximum trace length, using the IPC-2251 method or the frequency domain method, for transmission line effects. Copper weight/thickness is important in several areas of PCB design. Impedance matching is not normally required at low-frequency signals unless the mismatch between a trace and its upstream and. h = Dielectric Thickness. 245mm FR4, layer 1-3) = 0. Preface Taking the demand for small size, easy fabrication and low cost into account in the development of low-power radio devices for short -range 2. Dielectric constant will vary depending on such factors as material thickness, number of ply’s and resin content. According to the calculator I get 90. This is done by calculating the characteristic impedance of the trace (Zo) and then terminating it with its characteristic impedance. There's scarcely a printed circuit board that doesn't have some form of impedance control. These parasitic values can be calculated as follow:. Differential Impedance Calculator - Stripline Following is the formula for differential impedance for a Stripline. Specialized to measure LCR & impedance High impedance accuracy Wide impedance measurement range Main target application: • Capacitors, inductors, resonators • Materials • Semiconductor • In-circuit (4294A w/42941A) Measure S-parameter, also can be used for impedance measurement Higher Frequency range. The trace and trace width of any given printed circuit board could be measured. The dielectric choice for the board will dictate the signal bandwidth that can be sent down a PCB trace. emclab » emclab. Many PCB layout tools offer a very basic impedance calculator. Microstrip is the conducting medium used to transmit the electric signals at microwave frequency and fabricated using PCB - printed circuit board. Stripline Impedance Calculator Calculator™ "Excellent Free Online Calculators for Personal and Business use. Impedance in an electrical circuit is the complex ratio of the voltage to the current. These calculations are complex. 1 Impedance PTN3460 I/O impedance is targeted at 50 Ω single-ended and 100 Ω differential. PCB trace currents are critical to recognize as they are just as necessary in the construction of a printed circuit board as the trace resistance and trace width. Components such as capacitors, resistors or active devices are generally soldered on the PCB. But what is trace impedance? If you measure the impedance of the 65 Ohm trace in Figure 1, your multi-meter will report ~10 Ohms. Useful converters and calculators. Coplanar Waveguide Impedance Calculator. Finds all information about PCB Trace Impedance Calculator in different sites and blog basing on the search criteria you’ve entered … 2. Trace width calculator computes the values. Based on Figure 4, it can be concluded that as trace width changes by 0. Calculation of Thermal Resistor of Board to Ambient (BA) BA represents the thermal resistance of the PCB, from the point at which the package puts heat into the board, to ambient. Alternatively, suppose the impedance is given by a. Background. > There are a lot of impedance calculators on the web but none seem to match each other. 6A in outer layer of a standard 1 oz copper PCB: View example: Copper thickness Trace current - Current of the trace on PCB;. In case you need to calculate single ended or differential pair impedance on your PCB, try following links: This link also has a track maximum current calculator , crosstalk calculator and thermal via calculator. The antenna has 50ohm impedance. A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components on a circuit board. "W" is the width of the trace. Figure 5 depicts the parameters relevant for impedance calculation for both microstrip traces (outer layer traces) and stripline traces (traces within the layer stack, typically sandwiched by two ground planes). Related Resources Automated high-voltage creepage checks eliminate the tedious work associated with PCB validation and make it easy to find design errors. The PCB Differential Impedance Calculator performs calculations for two traces that carry signals that are exactly equal and opposite (a differential pair). Most PCB manufacturers allow you to choose from copper weights of 0. As traces or vias get closer together they become more capacitive and hence impedance decreases. Calculating Resistance and Reactance. 3 Going from 50W to 100W Impedance 14 3. Please see Disclaimer below. Differential Impedance of Stripline. It defines range for most of the parameter we need to know for the wire size calculation. PCB heat resistance- Voltage drop- FPC bending radius- Impedance estimation- PCB weight calculationDetails:Track heating:Calculate required track widths and copper thicknesses for high current. 0; 1 < ε r < 15 ; Accuracy: For typical PCB parameters (ε r = 4, H = 30 mil and T = 1. PCB Trace Impedance Calculator -… PCB Trace Impedance Calculator. PCB trace currents are critical to recognize as they are just as necessary in the construction of a printed circuit board as the trace resistance and trace width. I am routing a PCB that will use a GPS antenna, and I need to use a 50 Ohm trace to connect the antenna. The MWI-2010 Microwave Impedance Calculator is a transmission line modeling tool for electronics engineers. The PCB Trace resistance is directly proportional to the length of the wire and inversely proportional to the area of the cross section of the wire. Cable impedance calculator The Eobot Bug Bounty Program enlists the help of the hacker community at HackerOne to make Eobot more secure. This capacitance "loading" has an effect on both Zo and on Tpd. trace and εr the relative dielectric constant of the substrate used. For exact impedance calculation, we recommend the software from Polar Instruments. A PCB trace width vs. The microstrip is a very simple yet useful way to create a transmission line with a PCB. PCB track current carrying capability calculator, using the IPC-2152 standard. PCB Calculators PCB Panelizer | Capacitance | Ohm’s Law | Thermal | Trace Width | Via Size Microstrip Impedance | Differential Microstrip Impedance | Embedded Microstrip Impedance. The resistivity is calculated as 1. 05mm - not possible 4 layer PCB Train - Internal to External (1. 005" and a trace width of. But if the parameters change, Used a PCB Trace Width Calculator to achieved a trace width that can handle a certain amount of current. 008 inches to 0. Faulty board? Of course not, just a slow meter. This online web calculator finds the resistance of copper PCB traces (a. I have no ground plane extending beyond the transmitter, just the loop itself. The term is used to describe the frequency of the circuit board. Following equation or formula is used for Embedded Microstrip Impedance Calculator. The traces are 9 mils wide, 8 mils gap, and trace to ground is 8 mils. Calculates the characteristic impedance and per-unit-length parameters of typical printed circuit board trace geometries. God knows how all those formulas work but I had to find the impedance of a circuit with 18 ohms resistance, 100mH of inductance and a 50Hz supply. With thanks to David Campbell for the use of this calculator. Generator circuit is driven by a time-varying voltage source, V S with the impedance R S, and terminated by a load resistor, R L. The increasing complexity of electrical components and circuits requires ever faster signal flows and thus thus higher transmission frequencies. AN-672 AN 672: Transceiver Link Design Guidelines for High-Gbps Data Rate Transmission Altera Corporation Send Feedback. Visit our site for an online quote today. Transmission Line Simulator (Newly Created Model) Includes effects of source impedance, load impedance, transmission line delay and characteristic impedance, and risetime of driving waveform. It consists of a conducting strip separated from a ground plane by a dielectric layer known as the substrate. Characteristic Impedance of Stripline: 0. Placement of components. It is a significant upgrade of our previous ESR calculator, offering greater usability and OS compatibility. Calculate Trace width, board thickness, Characteristic Impedance, inductance and other parameters. Differential Stripline Impedance Calculator. In the following sections, we will discuss the performance requirements such as signal integrity (SI), and related issues of controlled impedance (CI), power integrity (PI), and EMI/EMC. High-Speed Layout Guidelines 1. Rho: Conductor resistivity relative to copper. The only unified PCB design package with trace impedance calculation and automated routing features. General set-up for all models below:. Calculators. All Rights Reserved | 2635 N 1st St. PCB Trace Width Calculator This tool uses formulas from IPC-2221 to calculate the width of a copper printed circuit board conductor or "trace" required to carry a given current while keeping the resulting increase in trace temperature below a specified limit. For example, on a standard multilayer PCB with a thickness, T, of. Based on Figure 4, it can be concluded that as trace width changes by 0. "G" is the Gap between the trace and the ground plane. As per impedance calculations, differen. com gathered some interesting links to useful tools from various sources. 42 dealing with high speed logic 12. The dielectric choice for the board will dictate the signal bandwidth that can be sent down a PCB trace. 2012 Canadian Circuits hosted an open house after renovating the production facility with distinguished speakers, plant tours and prizes. This calculator calculates the trace resistance of a PCB. Modeling approximation can be used to understand the. Some parameters used in simulation are given below where all dimensions are in mils. Enter values for Zo and Electrical Length to determine the physical width and length of the microstrip line. copper and dielectric thickness, H, of. A planelet, a. And even more so, if there is no current in any given printed circuit board, there is no power. Propagation delay is the amount of time which takes for the head of the signal to travel from the sender to the receiver. Figure 1: Microstrip PCB and its circuit model. Most PCB manufacturers allow you to choose from copper weights of 0. The microstrip is a very simple yet useful way to create a transmission line with a PCB. 6 mm FR4 and 1 oz copper. In the early 1990s, impedance control was limited to PCBs used in few specific market segments. 005" and a trace width of. Test Circuit. Z RL is the RL circuit impedance in ohms (Ω),. Impedance-Calculator With the Multi-CB impedance calculator, you can calculate the approximate impedance dimensioning of your PCB / high frequency circuit board. This Javascript web calculator calculates the trace width for printed circuit board conductors for a given current using formulas from IPC-2221 (formerly IPC-D-275). Please LIKE, Share, ReTweet. The larger the trace width is, the lower the impedance will be. All calculators are approximations for general purpose use only and are not to be used for high degree of accuracy purposes. Example 1: Must calculate the PCB track width for a current of 1. The thinner the trace width, the more impedance is offered. These traces will always exhibit some (perhaps very small) level of crosstalk. Trace thickness is 0. Download from PCB Libraries - IPC-2152 Trace Width Calculator I Decline: I Accept the EULA: 157. The inductance of a flat or ribbon wire (rectangular cross section), can be found using the calculator or the equation given below. Symmetric Stripline: Signal traces that are routed between two ground planes on an internal layer are commonly referred to as stripline routing. Example 1: Must calculate the resistance of a 4 inch long and 12 mils width trace on a 70um copper PCB at 70 degrees celsius temperature. If the lines are coupled , the situation changes. recommended site:. How to Route Differential Pairs in Autodesk EAGLE. I have to make a PCB track with impedance of about 70 ohm, so I have to use the values of: relative permeability (er) = 3,7-3,8 (from datasheet) width of track = 1,65 mm trace thickness = 0,2 mm (from pcb datasheet). Enter the know parameters and you will have instance results for the unknown parameters. PCB Impedance and Capacitance Calculator (You can calculte impedance for seven different structures) PCB Impedance Calculator (Another tool, can be used for almost all types of structures) Currently we use the most famous impedance tool: Polar Si8000, to calculate the impedance value, using our different materail to get a suitable value for. Subject: [SI-LIST] Altium19 - Impedance Calculator Hi experts, Unsure of how many of you use Altium, but they have recently introduced a major update with their v19 release. Contact: Torsten Waaga Phone: +49 2129 … Mantaro – Impedance Calculator. w - width of the trace S - space between traces t - thickness of the trace Z0 - characteristic impedance C0 - capacitance tpd - propagation delay L0 - inductance Zd - differential impedance Microstrip h - height of dielectric above and below return plane h1 - height of dielectric below return plane h1 (mm) Offset (asymmetric) Stripline. on cost and scheduling. However, according to the board structure and impedance calculation formula of transmission lines, the impedance is only dependent to PCB material and PCB layer structure with the line width and routing features unchanged for the same line. Bandwidth Calculator & Max PCB Trace Length. λ/4 printed monopole antenna for 2. PCB Calculators PCB Panelizer | Capacitance | Ohm’s Law | Thermal | Trace Width | Via Size Microstrip Impedance | Differential Microstrip Impedance | Embedded Microstrip Impedance. I am confused about the correct PCB stack-up for 100 Ohm differential trace impedance. Use the Impedance Calculator to quickly calculate the impedance or AC resistance of conductors in your PCB design. With the Multi-CB impedance calculator, you can calculate the approximate impedance dimensioning of your PCB / high frequency circuit board. Indeed, this is the dynamic that forced us to get good at modeling, designing and fabricating PCB traces 30 years ago. 2 Select the configuration of the PCB trace. Every PCB designers must have this app as this will make your work more better and increases your time efficiency as well. Different applications require different trace geometry to properly route signals and ensure signal. copper and dielectric thickness, H, of. Embedded Microstrip. All calculators are approximations for general purpose use only and are not to be used for high degree of accuracy purposes. DIFFERENTIAL PAIR ROUTING continues Trace Width (MIL) Clearance (MIL) Zdiff (ohms) % increase 4 8 99. Differential Microstrip Impedance Calculator is an online electronic tool to measure the opposition to alternating current. PCB Trace Resistance Calculator. If there were no antipads, then the calculation for differential impedance is the simple twin-rod equation. However, according to the board structure and impedance calculation formula of transmission lines, the impedance is only dependent to PCB material and PCB layer structure with the line width and routing features unchanged for the same line. According to the calculator I get 90. I have an application that will have three, 12 inch pcbs connected via pin header connectors. Wavelength calculator Calculates the wavelength of a signal using Ereff. Since PIe edge connector’s character impedance is 85Ω, the traces between the connector and I should be 85Ω -- the rest is usually set to 100Ω. In the following sections, we will discuss the performance requirements such as signal integrity (SI), and related issues of controlled impedance (CI), power integrity (PI), and EMI/EMC. Propagation delay is the amount of time which takes for the head of the signal to travel from the sender to the receiver. The restriction of this impedance target is to prevent any loss of signal strengths resulting from a reflection of unwanted signals. Each type has strengths and weaknesses. simplify trace routing around other components or when there is a high density of interconnections to be made (i. As per standard, the rating of bus bar 25 KA is correct. emclab » emclab. Take the time to carefully design your transmission lines with the use of microstrip or stripline traces. The width of the trace required depends on several things including whether the trace is on internal or external layer, and the thickness of the trace (or copper weight). Calculating Differential Impedance of Parallel PCB Traces Without Ground Plane Jim Hagerman, IBiS Networks The Problem While facing a recent design challenge, I came upon the need to calculate the differential impedance of a pair of traces on a circuit board when no ground plane was present. * Microstrip and Stripline are the types of transmission line used in PCB design. Have a PCB trace or set of traces and want to know the impedance, capacitance and crosstalk parameters. Faulty board? Of course not, just a slow meter. The inductor is designed to operate at the lower frequency FM band as part of a matching network and the antenna is designed to operate at the higher frequency GPS L1 band. Select the box with the geometry that you would like to calculate. How important is it to use microstrip/CPWG PCB traces at VHF/UHF? « on: December 04, 2017, 02:00:47 pm » I'm pretty new to both electronics in general and radio work specificially, and my current hobby project involves working on some low power transmitters, currently on the 2m band and eventually on the 70cm band. w - width of the trace S - space between traces t - thickness of the trace Z0 - characteristic impedance C0 - capacitance tpd - propagation delay L0 - inductance Zd - differential impedance Microstrip h - height of dielectric above and below return plane h1 - height of dielectric below return plane h1 (mm) Offset (asymmetric) Stripline. 2 Select the configuration of the PCB trace. 0 (air) above the traceZo = 73. God knows how all those formulas work but I had to find the impedance of a circuit with 18 ohms resistance, 100mH of inductance and a 50Hz supply. And even more so, if there is no current in any given printed circuit board, there is no power. 5 mm to get the right impedance) Trace Spacing: 0. Characteristic Impedance of Stripline: 0. It consists of a conducting strip separated from a ground plane by a dielectric layer known as the substrate. Controlled Impedance - The matching of substrate material properties with trace dimensions and locations in an effort to create a specific electrical impedance for a signal moving along a trace. One of the most common is FR4. It also increases with the increase in temperature. About the Author. 240 inches and they include 0. PCB Toolkit Version 4 series: This version uses the IPC-2152 "conservative" chart for finding conductor current vs. H = 6 mils above the planeEr = 4. To avoid microstrip line modes, it is recommended that h >> b and that the component side ground extend away from the track on each side more than "b". This tool is designed to calculate the resistance of a microstrip trace with a copper conductor. Propagation delay is the amount of time which takes for the head of the signal to travel from the sender to the receiver. on cost and scheduling. I have to make a PCB track with impedance of about 70 ohm, so I have to use the values of: relative permeability (er) = 3,7-3,8 (from datasheet) width of track = 1,65 mm trace thickness = 0,2 mm (from pcb datasheet). Notes: The formula for calculating allowable current through a trace is published in the IPC-2221 standard section 6. In the 1999 IPC Expo paper "Calculation of PCB Track Impedance," [3] it was shown that computer processing power had put the use of numerical field solving techniques within reach of PCB fabricators, who could now benefit from 2-D field solving technology with commonly available computer hardware. Microstrip is a type of electrical transmission lines which can be fabricated using printed circuit boards (PCB). San Jose, CA 95134. HackerOne is the #1 hacker-powered security platform, helping organizations find and fix critical vulnerabilities before they can be criminally exploited. 97mm gives me an impedance of 90. Impedance Calculator. If a trace has been defined as an impedance control trace, it is not the trace size which is strictly defined, but rather the impedance. PCB trace impedance calculator calculates the characteristic impedance and per-unit-length parameters of typical printed circuit board trace geometries: Power Supply Calculator Thermaltake Power Supply Calculator. for a trace width that stayed constant; if the trace width is adjusted to keep impedance constant, the percentage in propagation velocity is slightly less. As the operating speed of electronic circuits has increased, so has the need for printed boards to have controlled impedances and, therefore, the majority of board manufacturers are producing them. The microstrip is a very simple yet useful way to create a transmission line with a PCB. Can you describe me the basic rules for this and advise relevant links? For example, I have differential stripline signals, which should be 100 Ohm impedance. I am going to get it made as a two layer, 1. 0 to Ethernet Controller DM9621A. The PCB design engineer and the signal integrity engineer can agree upon a reasonable tighter limit initially. There are *lots* of things you need to get right if you are laying out a PCB with high-speed RAM on it. 008 inches to 0. There are some advantages to using a microstrip transmission line over other alternatives. When we talk about the "impedance" of a pcb trace, we are talking about the characteristic impedance of a uniform transmission line. 5 RBIAS The RBIAS resistor sets an internal current source reference. t = Trace Thickness. 0 connection on a board and I'm new to using OrCAD PCB so I haven't been able to make much progress. The differential impedance of two matched, noninteracting transmission lines is double the impedance of either line alone. Thread starter Is there any acceptable formula/software for calculating the Impedance of copper trace on a PCB? Hero999. By using a trace width calculator, you will be able to specify the thickness of your printed circuit board. 8 10 7 S/m Relative Permittivity of FR4 = 4. For the sake of contributing I'll post my well proven 75 ohm dimensions of 35 mil trace and 50 mil gap on 1. Average Propagation Delay: 2 nS / ft This is an average between microstrip and stripline. dependent on the accuracy of the reference impedance (Z O). PCB trace currents are critical to recognize as they are just as necessary in the construction of a printed circuit board as the trace resistance and trace width. PCB trace width calculator Calculates the width of a PCB trace at a given current. By repeatedly adjusting the structure’s dimensions and running 3-D simulations, it’s possible to optimize the via dimension to achieve the desired impedance and bandwidth requirements. Reading time (words). The commonly used PCB trace thickness include PCB trace thicknesses ranging from 0. Try our javascript-based Stripline Trace Impedance Calculator or for those high-speed diff-pairs try the Differential Stripline Impedance Calculator. Comment/Request God knows how all those formulas work but I had to find the impedance of a circuit with 18 ohms resistance, 100mH of inductance and a 50Hz supply. 9 5 Revision 1. [email protected], values from productor datasheet). Layout / Design; PCB Structures. PCB traces can be configured in essentially two different ways on a PCB. The maximum speed is the speed of light with 3 × 108 m/s. PCB traces are small conductor strips on the PCB that enable current flow to and from. Chemical etching divides the copper into separate conducting lines called tracks or circuit traces, pads for connections, vias to pass connections between layers of copper, and features such as solid conductive areas for electromagnetic shielding or other purposes. Transfer impedance from source to Output 1 for the board with four. Any circuit board includes components that provide important functionality, and those components must be connected together with copper traces. For Rogers boards, the accurate price and lead time will be confirmed after verification. 2 DM9621A: DACOM West. Planes A plane is an uninterrupted area of metal covering the entire PCB layer. Ensure that the VNA-TDR application is in Advanced Mode in order to follow this example. If the lines are coupled , the situation changes. Calculating the Differential impedance is a two-step process, first Calculate the single ended impedance Zo and then use this value to calculate the differential impedance. 2 mils, h = 4. For many designs, an important aspect of routing the PCB is knowing the net length. While commonly constructed using printed circuit boards, this structure can also be built using other materials as long as there is a conductor separated from. My CAN Bus will be the standard ISO 11898. width of the trace: H [m] height of dielectric above return plane: T [m] See also notes on PCB Impedance and Capacitance Calculator page. Impedance in an electrical circuit is the complex ratio of the voltage to the current. Impedance control on PCBs. PCB impedance calculator. Howard Johnson, Signal Consulting Inc:Trace Inductance. In case you are thinking about using a multilayer circuit board, use the top layer for power traces, the bottom layer for control traces and an inner layer for the control ground. How to calculate PCB trace width and differential pair separation, based on the impedance requirement and other parameters. Here is what I fed into to the calculator: Trace Thickness: 35 µm (Standard 1 oz copper thickness for FR4 PCB material) Substrate Height: 1. Using formulas to calculate strip/mictrostrip impedance's used to be good enough, but with modern PCB technology, this does NOT work well. A planelet, a. For stripline (embedded in a constant er), the velocity variation over the same er range is about 11. This calculation model is also based on the thickness and width of the trace, the thickness of the substrate, and the dielectric type and thickness just as with microstrip. Pasternack's Microstrip Calculator computes a microstrip's height/width ratio, impedance and relative dielectric constant for a microstrip transmission line. Characteristic Impedance of Stripline: 0. The thickness is also used in the calculation of trace impedance (ohms) in RF and high speed digital circuits. emclab » emclab. f is the frequency in hertz (Hz),. Wadell[1] is one of the most comprehensive sources of equations for evaluating these impedances. This calculator calculates the trace resistance of a PCB. PCB Design Companion is an app specially designed to help and assist PCB designers. PCB Trace Width Calculator This tool uses formulas from IPC-2221 to calculate the width of a copper printed circuit board conductor or "trace" required to carry a given current while keeping the resulting increase in trace temperature below a specified limit. Here is an online PCB Differential Impedance Calculator to calculate the differential impedance of Printed Circuit Board. PCB Trace Impedance Calculator. Controlled Impedance - The matching of substrate material properties with trace dimensions and locations in an effort to create a specific electrical impedance for a signal moving along a trace. Based on Zo Equation Per: IPC-D-317A:. trace and εr the relative dielectric constant of the substrate used. 6mm pcb thickness ) with 8 mil trace width, 8 mil trace spacing , 1. 0 to Ethernet Controller DM9621A. A copy of his paper and a similar transmission line calculator that runs on a PC can be obtained from UltraCAD Design, Inc. Crosstalk: Calculation of the crosstalk between traces on the same ground plane or on different ground planes. Lattice Semiconductor High-Speed PCB Design Considerations 4 100 ohm characteristic impedance has become an industry standard value for differential lines used for intercon-nection. PCB Toolkit Version 4 series: This version uses the IPC-2152 "conservative" chart for finding conductor current vs. 36 microstrip pcb transmission lines 12. 2 Balanced PCB pair reflection 20 4. The angular frequency is also determined. Controlled impedance implies that the PCB is manufactured so that the impedance of traces is within a certain percentage of a specified value. Check for deviations in differential impedance for all trace segments on a net. Modeling approximation can be used to design the microstrip trace. 43 low voltage differential signalling (lvds) 12. dependent on the accuracy of the reference impedance (Z O). Calculation of PCB Track Impedance by Andrew J Burkhardt, Christopher S Gregg and J Alan Staniforth INTRODUCTION The use of high-speed circuits requires PCB tracks to be designed with controlled (characteristic, odd-mode, or differential) impedances. Fast, secure and non-obligatory instant online PCB quote and cost calculator. The relationship between trace width and current carrying capacity in your printed circuit boards is fairly straightforward. For a certain trace length, the signal needs a certain time to pass it, and this is called the propagation delay time. 1 Go to an online PCB trace impedance calculator, such as the one listed in the resource section at the close of this article. High-Speed Layout Guidelines 1. This online web calculator finds the resistance of copper PCB traces (a. Controlled Impedance - The matching of substrate material properties with trace dimensions and locations in an effort to create a specific electrical impedance for a signal moving along a trace. While commonly constructed using printed circuit boards, this structure can also be built using other materials as long as there is a conductor separated from. The larger the trace width is, the lower the impedance will be. Microstrip Inductor Calculator. temperature rise. Example of a micro-strip line (stereo view) 3. Simons, "Coplanar Waveguide Circuits, Components, and Systems", Wiley, 2001, pp. This calculator graphs an impedance function for a power distribution system on a PCB with an arbitrary number of capacitors with arbitrary associated lead and mounting inductance and arbitrary ESR. I'm not completely happy with some that I've worked up. Generally, impedance values vary in a printed circuit board, unless the trace values are taken into account while designing. This tool can handle board stack ups to 16 copper layers, metric or English dimensioning, multiple ground planes and differential impedance calculations. 0 connection on a board and I'm new to using OrCAD PCB so I haven't been able to make much progress. Calculation Notes. PCB Trace Width Calculator This tool uses formulas from IPC-2221 to calculate the width of a copper printed circuit board conductor or "trace" required to carry a given current while keeping the resulting increase in trace temperature below a specified limit. PCB Design Companion is an app specially designed to help and assist PCB designers. Controlled Impedance: 4/6 layer, default layer stack-up: Controlled Impedance PCB Layer Stackup JLCPCB Impedance Calculator: Material: FR-4: FR-4 Standard Tg 130-140/ Tg 155: Dielectric constant: 4. 2313 structure 4. 99mm FR4) = 0. PCB Trace Impedance Calculator. 8 and has two metallization layers. Microstrip, embedded Microstrip, Symetric and Asymetric; Stripline, Wire Microchip, Wire Stripline, Edge Coupled Microstrip and Stripline) PCB Crosstalk (Microstrip and Stripline) LC L/T/Pi Match calculation. Every PCB Manufacturer has a different process and will modify trace widths to achieve desired impedances. 0, Ethernet, or DDR. edu » Resources » Tools » PCB Trace Impedance Calculator » microstrip Microstrip Impedance Calculator Provide values for H, T, W and the relative permittivity of the dielectric and click the button corresponding to unknown parameter Z o to calculate its value. This study mainly focuses on the design, simulation and verification of impedance matching of the rigid-flex printed circuit board interconnections, including 50 Ω flexible PCB and 50 Ω rigid. PCB trace width calculator Calculates the width of a PCB trace at a given current. The term is used to describe the frequency of the circuit board. 8 10 7 S/m Relative Permittivity of FR4 = 4. As an example of coupling , think of two parallel pcb traces. The characteristic impedance (Z o) of coplanar waveguide with ground or microstrip lines with signal side ground plane can be calculated using the active calculator or the equations at the bottom of the page. εr: Relative permittivity of the substrate. > There are a lot of impedance calculators on the web but none seem to match each other. Bandwidth Calculator & Max PCB Trace Length Calculator. The MWI-2010 Microwave Impedance Calculator is a transmission line modeling tool for electronics engineers. For additional questions, please email [email protected] PCB Trace Power Handling Calculator pop-up Calculate trace width values based using the IPC-2221 charts by providing inputs such as current thickness and temperature values. The width of the trace, the thickness of the dielectric layer, and the type of dielectric determine the characteristic impedance (typically 50Ω or 75Ω) 1. Crosstalk: Calculation of the crosstalk between traces on the same ground plane or on different ground planes. Different applications require different trace geometry to properly route signals and ensure signal. Microstrip, embedded Microstrip, Symetric and Asymetric; Stripline, Wire Microchip, Wire Stripline, Edge Coupled Microstrip and Stripline) PCB Crosstalk (Microstrip and Stripline) LC L/T/Pi Match calculation. We normally estimate the impedance of wires or PCB traces to be 1nH for each millimetre of their length, meaning that 10mm of wire or trace has approximately 63#937; of inductive impedance at 1GHz. Alternatively, suppose the impedance is given by a. It is designed to provide engineers with a variety of guidelines and graphs that will help estimate appropriate trace and space widths. The calculation is made for Microstrip, Embeded Microstrip and Stripline. Based on Zo Equation Per: IPC-D-317A:. 0 oz/ft2 of copper thickness which is commonly applied on most applications. com CATEGORIES: Software Calculator CalcTown is an online Engineering Calculator resoruce. My CAN Bus will be the standard ISO 11898. You can see for example, Matthew K. Microstrip, embedded Microstrip, Symetric and Asymetric Stripline, Wire Microchip, Wire Stripline, Edge Coupled Microstrip and Stripline) PCB Crosstalk (Microstrip and Stripline) LC L/T/Pi Match calculation Coax Cable. Controlled impedance refers to the value of impedance that remains constant throughout the point along the trace. Select the box with the geometry that you would like to calculate. Differential Microstrip Impedance Calculator. Preface Taking the demand for small size, easy fabrication and low cost into account in the development of low-power radio devices for short -range 2. voltage should be linear. Currently our facility improvement goal for 2017 is to add capabilities such as processing Panasonic’s Megtron 4 and 6 as laminate materials, less than 5% impedance testing, wire bonding, and less than 0. Select the Zo button to calculate the characteristic impedance of the trace. Based on Figure 4, it can be concluded that as trace width changes by 0. 245mm FR4, layer 1-3) = 0. 0; 1 < ε r < 15 ; Accuracy: For typical PCB parameters (ε r = 4, H = 30 mil and T = 1. Our stackup models incorporate real-life prepreg compression values based on glass type, resin percentage, and copper retention rates. 5 mm air line connector as a stable impedance reference for the calculation of rho and ohms. A good calculator will give you the ability to calculate the impedance for any dielectric constant for a thin microstrip. [email protected], values from productor datasheet). 0 oz/ft2 of copper thickness which is commonly applied on most applications. For many designs, an important aspect of routing the PCB is knowing the net length. The first trace (generator conductor) is driven by a time-varying voltage source, V S with the impedance R S , and terminated by a load resistor, R L. 2) S/T > 5. The term is used to describe the frequency of the circuit board. Z RL is the RL circuit impedance in ohms (Ω),. The edge couple differential symmetric stripline transmission line is a common technique for routing differential traces. How to Route Differential Pairs in Autodesk EAGLE. Several Web sites such as the examples listed below contain additional reference information. Etching Inaccurate etching can have large impacts on the impedance characteristics of traces. Wavelength calculator Calculates the wavelength of a signal using Ereff. Calculation of the maximum current a trace or via can. This discussion is an extension of the investigation presented in the March 2017 issue of the In Compliance magazine [1] where the impact of varying the PCB board geometry (distance between the traces and distance from the. Key Features: Properly build structures to meet your needs by understanding the microstrip transmission line. Microstrip Inductor Calculator. As PCB trace, the PCB vias also have an associated parasitic capacitance, inductance and impedance. All, I have a Flex circuit made out of Polyimide (er =3. Differential Microstrip Impedance Calculator is an online electronic tool to measure the opposition to alternating current. R is the resistance in ohms (Ω),. Comment/Request God knows how all those formulas work but I had to find the impedance of a circuit with 18 ohms resistance, 100mH of inductance and a 50Hz supply. The microstrip calculator determines the width and length of a microstrip line for a given characteristic impedance (Zo) and electrical length or vice versa. Trace thickness is 0. So it is convenient to determine the later width of a track in the layout already in the schematic. These traces will always exhibit some (perhaps very small) level of crosstalk. Following is the list of useful converters and calculators. We offer low cost PCBs that make it testing your designs and ideas practical. By determining its trace resistance, the contribution of a microstrip to the overall circuit resistance can be evaluated. The trace and trace width of any given printed circuit board could be measured. Most of the design suits and development environments have integrated PCBs trace resistance calculator which can estimate the resistance of the final copper trace on the board by providing the required and. Q-factor of PCB inductors is generally lowered then Q-factor of the inductors having a coil of wire and less than that of the cylindrical microstrip coils. One of the features of this type of microstrip is the coupling between lines. *Solder resist PCB coating will have the effect of lowering the impedance (due to the 30um or so of Er 3. Trace Resistance Simulation - Ohmmeter. A PCB trace width vs. Also unique to AppCAD's Everything S-Parameters is the 2-Port Single-ended to 1-Port Differential Impedance conversion. -See the blog article on twin-rod following this post or refer to the actual referenced white paper on my web site. There are four different types of impedance used in characterizing differential trace impedances. Dual Stripline Trace. SPEAr3xx devices all feature the ARM926 core running at up to 333 MHz, an external DDR2 memory interface and a configurable set of powerful on-chip peripherals. This tool is designed to calculate the resistance of a microstrip trace with a copper conductor. An asymmetric stripline is constructed between two plane layers, where the distance above the trace is not equal to the distance below. Use the Impedance Calculator to quickly calculate the impedance or AC resistance of conductors in your PCB design. Please LIKE, Share, ReTweet. Since the impedance is a real number, the voltage is in-phase with the current. Watch now!. You can see here that an inch of an average PCB trace can have between 0. 49 references 12. (sma connector) the connector is has 50 ohm impedance. 68ohms differential, and 55. Select a Configuration. There are *lots* of things you need to get right if you are laying out a PCB with high-speed RAM on it. 8 and has two metallization layers. 6A in outer layer of a standard 1 oz copper PCB. Fill in the relative permittivity of the dielectric and the height, width, and thickness of the trace. This impedance level lends itself well to PCB structures and other components designs where controlled transmission line impedance must be provided. 12 mm (I chose this value as a guess after trying a few different values). Calculate the PCB trace inductance, or "L," using the formula L = Zo * DLY. This calculation model is also based on the thickness and width of the trace, the thickness of the substrate, and the dielectric type and thickness just as with microstrip. Transmission Line Simulator (Newly Created Model) Includes effects of source impedance, load impedance, transmission line delay and characteristic impedance, and risetime of driving waveform. For additional questions, please email [email protected] 6 mm FR4 and 1 oz copper. Because single-sided, double-sided and multi-layered PCB boards exist in the market so does the thickness of these boards also varies with the type of PCB board. Embedded Microstrip Impedance Formula or Equation. Enter the Width and Thickness below. Modeling approximation can be used to design the microstrip trace. By understanding the microstrip transmission line, designers can properly build these structures to meet their needs. 8 Ohms according to the Polar Instruments Quicksolver calculator (see Note 6). Calculate Trace width, board thickness, Characteristic Impedance, inductance and other parameters. The dielectric choice for the board will dictate the signal bandwidth that can be sent down a PCB trace. 6 mm is used). Shipping is often approximated, usually UPS ground or whatever is least expensive. 7mm trace width to get an impedance of 50 Ohms?!. Ensure that the VNA-TDR application is in Advanced Mode in order to follow this example. So far, this example doesn’t have a load impedance or any load current. A signal travels on a PCB transmission line at a slower speed, affected by the dielectric constant (Er) of the PCB material – the relations for calculating the signal speed on a PCB are given below:. Many PCB layout tools offer a very basic impedance calculator. And even more so, if there is no current in any given printed circuit board, there is no power. emclab » emclab. The trace width for the radials we set to 0. Conductor / Copper thickness. The surface finish is neglected. The commonly used PCB trace thickness include PCB trace thicknesses ranging from 0. My goal is to extract the single ended/diff impedance in the presence of a cross-hatched plane (not solid). 2116 structure 4. [email protected], values from productor datasheet). NXP Semiconductors AN11088 PTN3460 DP to LVDS PCB layout guidelines 2. All calculators are approximations for general purpose use only and are not to be used for high degree of accuracy purposes. dBm to Watt converter Stripline Impedance calculator Microstrip line impedance Antenna G/T Noise temp. Some basic things to note are that the impedance is affected by the trace width, board thickness and the copper weight. Several choices of common units are available. Instead of using a homemade tool to work out the impedance of each trace in your PCB, Altium Designer incorporates PCB impedance calculations as part of your design rules. It is recommended that DP link PCB traces maintains 50Ω±15 % single-ended and 100 Ω±20 % differential impedance to maintain signal integrity. 43 low voltage differential signalling (lvds) 12. This book identifies the PCB design challenges and discusses the best practices to be implemented during PCB designing. I am working on a PCB design (6 layers with layer 2 and 5 as power-planes while 3 and 4 as signal layers) having speed differential traces. PCB Power Decoupling Myths trace length L3/L2 w/extra 200 mil trace Traditional Impedance Calculation for Four Decoupling Capacitor Values 0. (sma connector) the connector is has 50 ohm impedance. Current carrying capacity. Please LIKE, Share, ReTweet. It incorporates many features that PCB designers and engineers are in regular need of like current capacity of a PCB trace, via current, differential pairs. Differential Microstrip Impedance Calculator. If there were no antipads, then the calculation for differential impedance is the simple twin-rod equation. Hemeixinpcb, a turn-key PCB manufacturer, offers high quality, low-cost, printed circuit board manufacturing for prototype or low-volume orders. 38 some microstrip guidelines 12. We recommend the software from Polar Instruments if you want to get exact impedance calculation. Wavelength calculator Calculates the wavelength of a signal using Ereff. Additionally, you can use impedance calculator to double check your trace impedance. Microstrip is the conducting medium used to transmit the electric signals at microwave frequency and fabricated using PCB - printed circuit board. Caution: The results are only for approximation and rough estimation. Keep in mind this is complex impedance and not simple resistance. In the case of a microstrip, the impedance will depend on 4 parameters : H, Er, T, W For standard circuit boards, a PCB manufacturer is given a set of patterns - copper patterns, hole patterns, ink patterns, which are combined into a single circuit board with all the pattern sizes and positions within certain. 6 mm (Standard FR4 PCB) Trace Width: 1. ElectroSchematics. Please see Disclaimer below. The trace and trace width of any given printed circuit board could be measured. We offer low cost PCBs that make it testing your designs and ideas practical. the PCB trace impedance calculator. Preface Taking the demand for small size, easy fabrication and low cost into account in the development of low-power radio devices for short -range 2. PCB Trace Resistance Calculator. A trace on an external layer can carry more than an internal trace for the same thickness. 6A in outer layer of a standard 1 oz copper PCB: View example: Copper thickness Trace current - Current of the trace on PCB;. This calculator finds both odd and even transmission line impedance. PCB Trace Impedance Calculator -… PCB Trace Impedance Calculator. PCB impedance calculator. Wadell[1] is one of the most comprehensive sources of equations for evaluating these impedances. 5 RBIAS The RBIAS resistor sets an internal current source reference. Microstrip is a type of electrical transmission lines which can be fabricated using printed circuit boards (PCB). 1Ω and 15Ω of impedance depending on frequency or risetime of the signal. PCB Trace Width Calculator & PCB Trace Resistance Calculator. Equivalent Impedance, often abbreviated as Z eq in electrical engineering, is a measure of whole. While commonly constructed using printed circuit boards, this structure can also be built using other materials as long as there is a conductor separated from. PCB Design Companion is an app specially designed to help and assist PCB designers. The calculation is based on the IPC-2151 standard. Controlled Impedance - The matching of substrate material properties with trace dimensions and locations in an effort to create a specific electrical impedance for a signal moving along a trace. Based on Figure 4, it can be concluded that as trace width changes by 0. Check for deviations in differential impedance for all trace segments on a net. Models for calculation of impedance, capacitance and signal speed for traces in a PCB follow below. Z diff = 2* Zo (1 - 0. Stripline Impedance Calculator Calculator™ "Excellent Free Online Calculators for Personal and Business use. Impedance-Calculator. Q-factor of PCB inductors is generally lowered then Q-factor of the inductors having a coil of wire and less than that of the cylindrical microstrip coils. Controlled impedance refers to the value of impedance that remains constant throughout the point along the trace. Main >> Downloads >> PCB impedance calculator. For IPC-2221 internal layers: k = 0. If you need more shielding capabilities, then a stripline will place a trace between multiple ground planes and a dielectric. This calculator graphs an impedance function for a power distribution system on a PCB with an arbitrary number of capacitors with arbitrary associated lead and mounting inductance and arbitrary ESR. It can also be used for copper bars (e. Here is what I fed into to the calculator: Trace Thickness: 35 µm (Standard 1 oz copper thickness for FR4 PCB material) Substrate Height: 1. You may use this online tool to calculate an estimate of the minimum trace width for a given current and copper weight. USB331x USB Transceiver Layout Guidelines SMSC AN 16. Impedance and Power-handling Calculator Tutorial November 6, 2015 Isola’s free Impedance and Power-handling Calculator predicts the design attributes for microstrips and striplines based on the target impedance and dielectric properties of the company’s RF/microwave and millimeter wave laminate materials. I have no ground plane extending beyond the transmitter, just the loop itself. This calculator computes the inductance of a microstrip etched on a PCB, which according to the ARRL handbook is:. PCB Trace Power Handling Calculator pop-up Calculate trace width values based using the IPC-2221 charts by providing inputs such as current thickness and temperature values. You can find trace impedance calculators online or in your CAD software. Here is an online PCB Differential Impedance Calculator to calculate the differential impedance of Printed Circuit Board. Crosstalk: Calculation of the crosstalk between traces on the same ground plane or on different ground planes. keep it changing until your impedance is calculated 50 Ohms. Problems like ringing due to signal resonance arise when there is a significant impedance mismatch in a single-ended trace. This online web calculator finds the resistance of copper PCB traces (a. The cloder the two traces, the smaller is the differential impedance Following is the formula for differential impedance for a Microstrip. Impedance calculators also let you set a specific value for copper trace weight by specifying the thickness and width of the trace. Microstrip, embedded Microstrip, Symetric and Asymetric; Stripline, Wire Microchip, Wire Stripline, Edge Coupled Microstrip and Stripline) PCB Crosstalk (Microstrip and Stripline) LC L/T/Pi Match calculation. Salkow Territory's Downladable Calculators, Charts, Engineering Reference Page, excel based calculators, wire gauge, stripline, microstrip, dielectric Constant, Salkow's Stripline and Microstrip PCB Calculator, rpn calculator, pcb trace width versus ampacity. By using a trace width calculator, you will be able to specify the thickness of your printed circuit board. Impedance control on PCBs. Notes: 1) Calculation assumes traces are centered vertically. While the trace impedances in Figure 1 can be increased ~10 Ohms by separating the traces, via impedances will decrease from those shown in Figure 2 as vias move closer together. 1 Signal Path Loss 18 4. tracks) of given width, thickness, length, and temperature. There are many available online and for purchase. Impedance mismatch in high-speed/ high-frequency PCBs can wreak havoc on your signals. Example 1: Must calculate the resistance of a 4 inch long and 12 mils width trace on a 70um copper PCB at 70 degrees celsius temperature. Essentially, controlled impedance is the matching of substrate material properties with trace dimensions and locations to ensure the impedance of a trace’s signal is within a. This calculation model is also based on the thickness and width of the trace, the thickness of the substrate, and the dielectric type and thickness just as with microstrip. In case you are thinking about using a multilayer circuit board, use the top layer for power traces, the bottom layer for control traces and an inner layer for the control ground. impedance is determined by the physical geometries of the signal pair traces, their relation to the adjacent ground plane and the PCB dielectric. 3 Final Conclusions & Advising Notes 22 Appendix A Used Literature 23 PCB-Trace Evaluation 2 Application Note. PCB Trace Impedance Calculator. There are four different types of impedance used in characterizing differential trace impedances. Microstrip Transmission Line Characteristic Impedance Calculator. This calculator is designed to calculate the characteristic impedance of a microstrip - a flat conductor suspended over a ground plane with a dielectric between them (see diagram below).

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